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F-1 Students; Cap-Gap Extension; Unlawful Presence

October 11, 2018 Leave a comment

F-1 visa-holding students who are currently in cap-gap status are not authorized to work beyond September 30, 2018.

Cap-Gap Explained: The immigration law allows an F-1 student who is the beneficiary of a timely filed H-1B cap-subject petition requesting a change of status to H-1B on Oct. 1, to have his or her F-1 status and any current employment authorization extended through Sept. 30. This is known as “cap-gap”,  i.e. the law provides a way of filling the “gap” between the end of F-1 status and the beginning of H-1B status that might otherwise occur. The “cap-gap” period starts when an F-1 student’s status and work authorization expire, and they are extended through Sept. 30, with Oct. 1 being the requested start date of their H-1B employment, unless otherwise terminated or the H-1B petition is rejected or denied prior to Oct. 1.

What happens on or after October 1:  If an F-1 student availed cap-gap extension to stay and work in the U.S. until September 30 and such F-1 student’s H-1B change of status petition remains pending adjudication as of October 1, 2018 and continues to be so, then:

  • Such F-1 student must cease employment on October 1 (working on or after Oct 1 results in accrual of unlawful presence subjecting the F-1 to potentially be removed from U.S.);
  • Such F-1 student may however remain in the U.S. until the H-1B petition is adjudicated (approved, rejected or denied)

Employers currently employing F-1 students in cap-gap situation should notify such F-1 student-employees of the foregoing situation ideally in writing and remove such employees off the payroll and not allow them to work.  Be sure to clearly explain that the student may remain in U.S. until the H-1B is adjudicated.  The above cap-gap rule does not apply to F-1 students holding valid Optional Practical Training (OPT) work authorization (initial OPT or STEM OPT) which is valid beyond October 1 and it does not apply to F-1 students who are work-authorized pursuant to Curricular Practical Training (CPT).

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Denial without an RFE or NOID (Currently in Effect)

October 11, 2018 Leave a comment

Recently, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) guidance pertaining to denial of certain petitions or applications without first issuing an RFE (Request for Evidence) or NOID (Notice of Intent to Deny) went into effect.  It became effective on September 11, 2018.

What is the guidance about:    The guidance empowers USCIS adjudicators with the discretion (total free will) to deny an application, petition, or request without first issuing an RFE or NOID if initial evidence is not submitted or if the evidence in the record does not establish eligibility.

When and what type of cases is it applicable: Starting September 11 when the policy went into effect, the USCIS adjudicators now have complete discretion to deny cases without issuing an RFE or a NOID first. This includes any filing in which the applicant, petitioner, or requestor has no legal basis for the benefit/request sought or submits a request for an immigration benefit or relief under a program that has been terminated.  Moreover, if all required initial evidence is not submitted with the petition or application, USCIS in its discretion may deny for failure to establish eligibility based on lack of required initial evidence.  What is considered “required” can be very subjective and arbitrary in interpretation of adjudicators.  Types of cases include pretty much all immigration benefits – H-1B, H-4, L-1/L-2, green card cases, family based cases, waiver applications etc.

What are the documentary examples of initial evidence in the context of H-1B:  USCIS has recently provided examples of what it regards as initial evidence to be filed with a H-1B petition:

  • Evidence the beneficiary maintained status if seeking a change of status or extension of stay
  • Evidence showing the proposed employment qualifies as a specialty occupation
  • Evidence showing the beneficiary is qualified to perform the specialty occupation
  • A copy of any required license or other official permission for the beneficiary to perform the specialty occupation in the state of intended employment (if applicable)
  • A copy of any written contract between the employer and the beneficiary or a summary of the terms of the oral agreement under which the beneficiary will be employed.
  • An itinerary showing the date and places of assignment if the petition indicates that the beneficiary will be providing services at more than one location.
  • A corresponding Labor Condition Application (LCA) that has been certified by the Department of Labor (DOL) and signed by the petitioner and attorney/representative, if applicable.

What you can do to potentially avoid a denial without an RFE/NOID:  In addition to the above, for the past several years, our office has been providing clients with and using a comprehensive list of documents as a guide in H-1B filings.  This has helped us get overwhelmingly positive results in our filings for many years.

It is highly imperative to note that the process has become quite arbitrary leaving to each USCIS adjudicator the decision/discretion to approve or deny a case with the evidence submitted.  For instance, if a H-1B petition is filed without an end client letter in a client site placement situation (we believe this piece of document is extremely critical), one adjudicator may not consider this as part of initial evidence and may issue an RFE or an NOID while another adjudicator may simply decide to deny the case for failing to prove proper corporate relationship/proof of placement at the end client.  Thus, this highly arbitrary and subjective process will further complicate matters for H-1B employers.  Please consider providing as much information and documents as possible with each filing.

October 2017 Visa Bulletin – Employment-Based Visa Numbers – Eligibility to File Adjustment of Status Applications

October 4, 2017 Leave a comment
Employ-
ment
based
All Charge-
ability
Areas Except
Those Listed
CHINA-
mainland
born
EL SALVADOR
GUATEMALA
HONDURAS
INDIA MEXICO PHILIPPINES
1st C C C C C C
2nd C 22MAY13 C 15SEP08 C C
3rd C 01JAN14 C 15OCT06 C 01DEC15
Other Workers C 01JAN06 C 15OCT06 C 01DEC15
4th C C 01NOV15 C 01MAR16 C
Certain Religious Workers C C 01NOV15 C 01MAR16 C
5th
Non-Regional
Center
(C5 and T5)
C 22JUN14 C C C C
5th
Regional
Center
(I5 and R5)
C 22JUN14 C C C C

USCIS Announces Further Measures to Detect H-1B Visa Fraud and Abuse

April 6, 2017 Leave a comment
On April 3, 2017, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) announced multiple measures to further deter and detect H-1B visa fraud and abuse.  The press release states that the H-1B visa program should help U.S. companies recruit highly-skilled foreign nationals when there is a shortage of qualified workers in the country. Yet, too many American workers who are as qualified, willing, and deserving to work in these fields have been ignored or unfairly disadvantaged. Protecting American workers by combating fraud in our employment-based immigration programs is a priority for USCIS.

Beginning April 3, 2017, USCIS will take a more targeted approach when making site visits across the country to H-1B petitioners and the worksites of H-1B employees. USCIS will focus on:

  • Cases where USCIS cannot validate the employer’s basic business information through commercially available data;
  • H-1B-dependent employers (those who have a high ratio of H-1B workers as compared to U.S. workers, as defined by statute); and
  • Employers petitioning for H-1B workers who work off-site at another company or organization’s location.

The press release further states that targeted site visits will allow USCIS to focus resources where fraud and abuse of the H-1B program may be more likely to occur, and determine whether H-1B dependent employers are evading their obligation to make a good faith effort to recruit U.S. workers.  USCIS will continue random and unannounced visits nationwide. The press release states that these site visits are not meant to target nonimmigrant employees for any kind of criminal or administrative action but rather to identify employers who are abusing the system.

US Dept of Labor Announces Plans to Protect American Workers from H-1B Program Discrimination

April 6, 2017 Leave a comment

On April 5, 2017, the U.S. Department of Labor announced plans today to protect U.S. workers from H-1B program discrimination by providing greater transparency and oversight. The program allows employers to hire highly skilled foreign workers in specialty occupations. The H-1B visa program authorizes the temporary employment of qualified individuals who are not otherwise authorized to work in the U.S.

The Dept. of Labor states that in recent years, some employers have used the H-1B program to hire foreign workers despite American workers being qualified and available for work or even to replace American workers. The department fully supports the U.S. Department of Justice in cautioning employers who petition for H-1B visas not to discriminate against U.S. workers, as well as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s measures to further deter and detect H-1B visa fraud and abuse.

The department will protect American workers against discrimination through the following actions:

1. Rigorously use all of its existing authority to initiate investigations of H-1B program violators.
This effort to protect U.S. workers will also involve greater coordination with other federal agencies,
including the departments of Homeland Security and Justice for additional investigation and, if
necessary, prosecution.

2. Consider changes to the Labor Condition Application for future application cycles. The Labor
Condition Application, which is a required part of the H-1B visa application process, may be updated
to provide greater transparency for agency personnel, U.S. workers and the general public.

3. Continue to engage stakeholders on how the program might be improved to provide greater
protections for U.S. workers, under existing authorities or through legislative changes.

March 2017 Visa Bulletin – Employment-Based Visa Numbers – Eligibility to File Adjustment of Status Applications

February 17, 2017 Leave a comment
Employ-
ment
based
All Charge-
ability
Areas Except
Those Listed
CHINA-
mainland
born
EL SALVADOR
GUATEMALA
HONDURAS
INDIA MEXICO PHILIPPINES
1st C C C C C C
2nd C 15NOV12 C 15APR08 C C
3rd 01OCT16 01OCT13 01OCT16 22MAR05 01OCT16 15OCT11
Other Workers 01OCT16 01DEC05 01OCT16 22MAR05 01OCT16 15OCT11
4th C C 15JUL15 C 15JUL15 C
Certain Religious Workers C C 15JUL15 C 15JUL15 C
5th
Non-Regional
Center
(C5 and T5)
C 15APR14 C C C C
5th
Regional
Center
(I5 and R5)
C 15APR14 C C C C

November 2016 Visa Bulletin – Employment-Based Visa Numbers – Eligibility to File Adjustment of Status Applications

October 18, 2016 Leave a comment

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services recently stated that for the month of November, it will use the State Dept.’s  November Visa Bulletin DATES FOR FILING OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED VISA APPLICATIONS for employment-based first through fourth preference category, and for employment-based fifth preference category, the FINAL ACTION DATES FOR EMPLOYMENT-BASED PREFERENCE CASES to be used.  Hereunder, State Dept.’s November Filing Dates Chart is provided:

Employment-
based
All Chargeability
Areas Except
Those Listed
CHINA-
mainland
born
INDIA MEXICO  PHILIPPINES 
1st C C C C C
2nd C 01MAR13 22APR09 C C
3rd C 01MAY14 01JUL05 C 01SEP13
Other Workers C 01AUG09 01JUL05 C 01SEP13
4th C C C C C
Certain Religious Workers C C C C C
5th
Non-Regional
Center
(C5 and T5)
C 15JUN14 C C C
5th
Regional
Center
(I5 and R5)
C 15JUN14 C C C
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